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Trade Statistics in Turkey

OVERVIEW In September 2022 Turkey exported $20.6B and imported $30.2B, resulting in a negative trade balance of $9.56B. Between September 2021 and September 2022 the exports of Turkey have increased by $1.07B (5.45%) from $19.6B to $20.6B, while imports increased by $7.89B (35.4%) from $22.3B to $30.2B.


TRADE In September 2022, the top exports of Turkey were Vehicles ($2.24B), Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical… ($1.85B), Iron and steel ($1.22B), Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products… ($1.14B), and Electrical machinery and equipment and parts… ($1.07B). In September 2022 the top imports of Turkey were Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products… ($8.6B), Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical… ($2.99B), Precious metals, gems and jewelry ($2.75B), Electrical machinery and equipment and parts… ($1.85B), and Iron and steel ($1.81B).

ORIGINSIn September 2022 the exports of Turkey were mainly from Ýstanbul ($10.5B), Ýzmir ($1.18B), Kocaeli ($1.11B), Bursa ($1.08B), and Ankara ($996M), while imports destinations were mainly Ýstanbul ($14.9B), Gizli Veri ($5.42B), Kocaeli ($1.82B), Ankara ($1.27B), and Ýzmir ($950M).

DESTINATIONSIn September 2022, Turkey exported mostly to Germany ($1.66B), United States ($1.23B), United Kingdom ($1.16B), Iraq ($1.13B), and Russia ($930M), and imported mostly from Russia ($6.24B), China ($3.46B), Switzerland ($1.9B), Germany ($1.87B), and World ($1.86B).

GROWTHIn September 2022, the increase in Turkey’s year-by-year exports was explained primarily by an increase in exports to United Arab Emirates ($260M or 89.6%), United States ($227M or 35.3%), and France ($81.8M or 13.3%), and product exports increase in Precious metals, gems and jewelry ($289M or 54.7%), Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical… ($138M or 10.9%), and Plastics and articles thereof ($56.4M or 11.3%). In September 2022, the increase in Turkey’s year-by-year imports was explained primarily by an increase in imports from China ($408M or 23%), France ($208M or 44.8%), and Germany ($170M or 12.9%), and product imports increase in Vehicles ($336M or 43.9%), Iron and steel ($287M or 21.1%), and Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical… ($243M or 13.5%).

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TIME SCALEYearQuarterMonth

VALUETrade ValueGrowthGrowth (%)


EXPORT GROWTH (SEPTEMBER 2021 – SEPTEMBER 2022):$1.07B,(5.45%)

IMPORT GROWTH (SEPTEMBER 2021 – SEPTEMBER 2022):$7.89B,(35.4%)

MAIN EXPORTER (SEPTEMBER 2022):Ýstanbul,$10.5B


This section shows exports and imports data at subnational level for Turkey. Click any date in the line plot, any subnational region in the geomap, or any product, destination or origin country to explore the exports or imports behavior of Turkey over time.

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Yearly Trade

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VALUETrade ValueGrowthGrowth (%)


TOP EXPORT (2020):Cars,$10.1B

TOP DESTINATION (2020):Germany,$24B

In 2020, Turkey exported a total of $177B, making it the number 29 exporter in the world. During the last five reported years the exports of Turkey have changed by $18.1B from $158B in 2015 to $177B in 2020.

The most recent exports are led by Cars ($10.1B), Motor vehicles; parts and accessories (8701 to 8705) ($4.59B), Delivery Trucks ($4.34B), Gold ($3.97B), and Refined Petroleum ($3.51B). The most common destination for the exports of Turkey are Germany ($16.3B), United Kingdom ($12.7B), United States ($10.3B), Iraq ($9.14B), and Italy ($8.23B).

Explore Visualizations

Data from BACI HS6 REV. 1992 (1995 – 2020).

Exports (2020)
[Click to Select a Product]

View DataSave ImageShareTotal: $177BCars5.73%Motor vehicles;parts andaccessories(8701 to 8705)2.6%DeliveryTrucks2.46%Gold2.25%RefinedPetroleum1.99%Jewellery1.98%Non-KnitWomen’sSuits1.51%Raw IronBars1.47%Knit T-shirts1.33%InsulatedWire1.3%Hand-WovenRugs1.26%KnitSweaters1.21%Refrigerators1.12%Other Furniture1%EngineParts0.94%Buses0.9%Other Nuts0.88%Light…0.83%Hot-Rolled Iron0.83%Iron Structures0.81%Raw PlasticSheeting0.81%Non-KnitMen’sSuits0.8%Rubber Tires0.75%Cement0.73%Knit…0.7%ElectricHeaters0.7%HouseLinens0.68%Coated Flat-Rolled…0.68%Packaged…0.64%VideoDisplays0.64%BakedGoods0.62%KnitSocks…0.61%Tractors0.6%Plastic Lids0.6%OtherSmall Iron…0.56%Citrus0.56%0.56%0.56%Felt orCoated…0.55%0.54%WheatFlours0.54%Other…0.52%BuildingStone0.52%ToiletPaper0.5%0.48%Gas…0.47%Unglazed…0.45%OtherIron…0.43%Seed Oils0.42%Non-…0.4%Marble…Aircraft…0.36%Hot-…Plastic PipesNon-Retail…0.35%0.33%Non-…0.33%Metal…0.31%Wood…0.3%Central…Electrical…Other…0.29%Stone…0.28%Other…Air…0.27%Pitted…0.27%Plastic…Non-Knit…Coal…Other…Fruit…Non-…Knit…Heavy…Tufted…Packing…Other…Micro-…0.27%Metal…

Destinations (2020)
[Click to Select a Country]

View DataSave ImageShareTotal: $177BGermany9.25%UnitedKingdom7.2%UnitedStates5.81%Iraq5.18%Italy4.66%France4.16%Spain3.91%Netherlands2.91%Israel2.64%Russia2.55%Romania2.24%Poland2.14%Belgium2.02%Egypt1.88%China1.66%United ArabEmirates1.57%Bulgaria1.49%Saudi Arabia1.49%Ukraine1.27%Morocco1.25%Iran1.21%Azerbaijan1.15%Greece1.03%Slovenia0.95%Libya0.94%India0.86%Switzerland0.86%Georgia0.84%Algeria0.82%Syria0.8%Hungary0.8%Serbia0.79%Sweden0.78%Czechia0.74%Austria0.73%0.67%SouthKorea0.65%Canada0.64%Denmark0.6%Kazakhstan0.57%Qatar0.56%Lebanon0.54%Tunisia0.52%Portugal0.52%Hong Kong0.48%Yemen0.47%0.45%0.45%Ireland0.44%Australia0.44%Cyprus0.43%Brazil0.4%0.37%Pakistan0.36%Slovakia0.34%South…0.33%Mexico0.33%JapanAlbaniaBosnia and…OmanSenegalSudanChinese…

Market Growth

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VIEWGeomapTreemapPERIOD1 year2 years3 years4 years5 years6 years7 years8 years9 years10 years



Total Export Growth by Market (2019 – 2020)

View DataSave ImageShare


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Service Trade

#permalink to sectionEXPORT YEAR20202018201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000IMPORT YEAR20202018201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072006200520042003200220012000



In 2020, Turkey exported $4.07B worth of services. The top services exported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.78B), Travel ($1.26B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($358M), Insurance services ($274M), and Computer and information services ($198M).

The top services imported by Turkey in 2020 were Transportation ($1.07B), Miscellaneous business, professional, and technical services ($612M), Insurance services ($421M), Royalties and license fees ($260M), and Computer and information services ($218M).

Data from UN Comtrade United Nations International Trade Statistics Database.

Service Exports (2020)

View DataSave ImageShare$0$200M$400M$600M$800M$1B$1.2B$1.4B$1.6B$1.8BTotal: $4.07B$0$200M$400M$600M$800M$1B$1.2B$1.4B$1.6B$1.8BRoyalties and license feesPersonal, cultural, and recreational servicesConstruction servicesGovernment services, n.i.e.Financial servicesComputer and information servicesInsurance servicesMiscellaneous business, professional, and technical servicesTravelTransportation

Service Imports (2020)

View DataSave ImageShare$0$200M$400M$600M$800M$1BTotal: $3.01B$0$200M$400M$600M$800M$1BConstruction servicesPersonal, cultural, and recreational servicesGovernment services, n.i.e.TravelFinancial servicesComputer and information servicesRoyalties and license feesInsurance servicesMiscellaneous business, professional, and technical servicesTransportation


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Most Specialized Products by RCA Index

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Turkey has a high level of specialization in Hand-Woven Rugs (41), Borates (38.9), Marble, Travertine and Alabaster (36.2), Stranded Copper Wire (20.3), and Wheat Flours (19). Specialization is measured using RCA, an index that takes the ratio between Turkey observed and expected exports in each product.

Data from BACI HS6 REV. 1992 (1995 – 2020).View DataSave ImageShareMost Specialized Products0510152025303540Specialization0510152025303540SpecializationMost Specialized ProductsPickled FoodsFeldsparFishing ShipsRaw Iron BarsOther FirearmsWheat FloursStranded Copper WireMarble, Travertine and AlabasterBoratesHand-Woven Rugs

Most Complex Products by PCI

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The highest complexity exports of Turkey according to the product complexity index (PCI) are Metalworking Machines (2.09), Non-Mechanical Removal Machinery (1.73), Iron Fasteners (1.67), Metal Molds (1.49), and Forging Machines (1.47). PCI measures the knowledge intensity of a product by considering the knowledge intensity of its exporters.

Data from BACI HS6 REV. 1992 (1995 – 2020),. and OEC Economic Complexity Indicators.View DataSave ImageShareMost Complex Products00.511.52PCI00.511.52PCIMost Complex ProductsGasketsAcrylic PolymersPlastic Coated Textile FabricTextile Fiber MachineryTransmissionsForging MachinesMetal MoldsIron FastenersNon-Mechanical Removal MachineryMetalworking Machines

Export Opportunities by Relatedness

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The top export opportunities for Turkey according to the relatedness index, are Knit Women’s Coats (0.47), Melons (0.46), Preserved Vegetables (0.46), Footwear Parts (0.46), and Other Fruits (0.45). Relatedness measures the distance between a country’s current exports and each product. The barchart show only products that Turkey is not specialized in.View DataSave ImageShareMost Related Products00. Related ProductsOther Non-Knit Clothing AccessoriesRubber FootwearNon-Knit Men’s CoatsOther live plants, cuttings and slips;mushroom spawnOther FruitsFootwear PartsPreserved VegetablesMelonsKnit Women’s CoatsOnions

Product Space

#permalink to sectionYEAR20202019201820172016201520142013201220112010200820092007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995SPECIALIZATIONRCA > 0.25RCA > 0.5RCA > 0.75RCA > 0.8RCA > 0.9RCA > 1RCA > 2RCA > 3RCA > 4RCA > 5

The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported. The product space can be used to predict future exports, since countries are more likely to start exporting products that are related to current exports. Relatedness measures the distance between a product, and all of the products a country currently specializes in.

Data from BACI HS6 REV. 1992 (1995 – 2020).View DataSave ImageShare


Relatedness Space

#permalink to sectionYEAR202020192018201720162015201420132012201120102009200820072004200320022001200019991998199719961995

This network shows the products most related to the production structure of Turkey. These are products that tend to be co-exported with the products that Turkey exports. Higher relatedness values ​​indicate greater knowledge, which predicts a greater probability of exporting that product in the future.View DataSave ImageShare

Diversification Frontier

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The Complexity-Relatedness diagram compares the risk vs strategic value of a country’s potential export oppotunities. Relatedness is predictive of the probability that a country increases its exports in a product. Complexity, is associated with higher levels of income, economic growth, less income inequality, and lower greenhouse emissions.

Data from BACI HS6 REV. 1992 (1995 – 2020).View DataSave ImageShare3210-1-2-3Product Complexity0.40.420.440.460.480.50.520.540.560.58Relatedness0.40.420.440.460.480.50.520.540.560.58Relatedness3210-1-2-3Product Complexity

Economic Complexity Ranking

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SCALERankingValueCOMPARE WITHNeighborsContinentSimilar Curr. GDPSimilar Curr. GDP PC

During the last 20 years Turkey’s⁩ ⁨economy has become relatively more complex, moving from the ⁩⁨50th to the 38th⁩ position in the ECI rank.

These economic complexity rankings use 6 digit exports classified according to the HS96 classification. We consider only countries with population of at least 1 million and exports of at least $1 billion, and products with world trade over $500 million. To explore different rankings and vary these parameters visit the custom rankings section.

Explore Rankings

ECI Rank by Country

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